Export Growth Expected from Turkey in 2014

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According to just-style, Turkey is aiming for increased export growth in 2014, mainly to EU markets. Although the cost of sourcing apparel from Turkey averages 30-40% higher than countries such as China and India, quicker lead times as well as Turkey’s ability to offer shorter runs are proving to be beneficial for European retailers. Despite increasing pressure on price from European retailers, Turkey’s clothing industry is still expected to grow during the upcoming year. Another factor Turkish apparel manufacturers benefit from is the depreciation of the country’s currency, the Lira. Depreciation of the Lira could potentially act as an advantage for Turkish apparel manufacturers, making apparel sourcing from Turkey more price competitive for European retailers.

By MacKenzie Cahoone

Source:Dyson, Jonathan. “Turkey looks to strong clothing export growth in 2014.” just-style Global News. 15 February 2014. http://0-www.lexisnexis.com.helin.uri.edu/hottopics/lnacademic/?verb=sr&csi=343994.

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Outlook for the US Textile Industry in 2014

In its latest industry analysis report, the Textile World (TW) presents a fairly optimistic outlook for the US textile industry in year 2014. According to the report:

  • Output of the US textile mills may increase 2 percent for basic products like fibers, yarns and fabrics; more highly fabricated items like industrial textiles could achieve an even higher growth rate.
  • US Imports of textiles may continue the pattern of flatness (i.e. limited growth) over the next 12 months whereas exports of US-made textiles will remain modest growth. As results, the US textile industry may see some fractional decline in trade deficit in the year ahead.
  • US textile mills may avoid meaningful upward fiber cost pressure, which includes cotton, rayon staple, acrylic staple, textured nylon and polyester.  High cotton stock level worldwide and the weak demand for natural gas and petroleum are cited as the two major reasons for the minimum price change.   
  • As another encouraging sign, the operating rate (production as a percentage of capacity) in the US textile industry has rebounded to above 70% which is accompanied with a robust growth of capital investment. As quoted in the report “US textile mills spent more than $1 billion each year to replace obsolete facilities and to take advantage of new, state of the art technology aimed at turning out new products and increasing overall efficiency”.
  • In terms of the job market, the picture seems to be mixed. Productivity growth as results of capitalization both reduces the real production cost as well as the overall demand for labor. According to the report, labor had only accounted for 19% of textile mills revenue dollars in 2013, implying the highly capital-intensive nature of the industry.
  • Additionally, the rising demand for product innovation and improvement create brightening growth opportunities for the US textile industry. According to the TW report, US consumers seem willing to pay a premium for “pluses functions” of the fabrics. Some 50 percent said they’d pay extra for wrinkle resistance, 51 percent for stain protection, 50 percent for easy care, 46 percent for fade resistance, and 45 percent for stretch. A number of US firms are further weaving sophisticated electronic extras into the fabric of garment sensors that can monitor a variety of personal vital signs.

Other highlighted issues to watch in 2014 include: made-in-USA factor, improved supply chain management, energy cost advantage and government policy support.

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3D Printing and the Future of the Fashion Industry

How do you think 3D printing might shape the future landscape of the fashion industry (eg: impact on consumers’ shopping behavior, structure of the supply chain, demand for talents and fashion companies’ business models?)

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Study Compares Shopping Habits of Luxury Consumers in New York and Shanghai

An interesting study was recently conducted by ContactLab, a UK based consulting agency, which compared shopping habits of luxury consumers (clothing, shoes and fashion accessories) in New York and Shanghai, the fashion hub of the United States and China respectively.

The study was conducted based on a survey of 922 respondents in New York and 975 respondents in Shanghai aged between 25 and 54 years old. According to the study:

  • the Chinese market, seen from Shanghai, confirms its standing as a market offering enormous opportunities to companies that produce high-end products
  • in the last 12 months four out of five individuals in Shanghai have bought at least one luxury item, spending on average around $1,000 (in New York around $500) on their last purchase
  • one out of three users in New York (35%) as well as in Shanghai (31%) chooses to be kept informed through email communications sent by brands
  • two different consumption profiles emerge: fashion buying in China is closely linked to the display of one’s own spending capacity, while the New York consumers show greater affection for brand

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A separate study released by the Fung Group in late 2013 suggests that foreign players largely dominate China’s luxury apparel market.

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Bangladesh Apparel Industry: An Update

Note: The following update can be used as additional reference material for our case study 1 on the Bangladesh fire accident.

The export-oriented apparel sector has been the main source of growth in exports and formal employment for the past three decades in Bangladesh. The industry directly employs 3.1 million people, comprising 40 percent of manufacturing employment; indirectly more than 10 million people are dependent on the apparel sector.

According to the World Trade Organization (WTO, 2013), in 2012, Bangladesh’s apparel exports to the world reached $19.9 billion (4.7%), among which $10.6 billion (or 53.3%) went to the European Union (27) and $4.6 billion (or 22.4%) went to the United States. Cotton trousers, cotton shirts, cotton sweaters and cotton T-shirt [HS 620342, HS620462, HS620520, HS611010 and HS610910]account for around 75% of Bangladesh’s total apparel exports in 2009 (World Bank, 2012).

The unit prices of Bangladesh’s main apparel exports are much lower than the world average and even lower than the unit values of apparel exports from China, India and Sri Lanka. From 2004 to 2007, the average price of Bangladesh’s apparel exports to the world fell from $2.60 to $2.31 per unit, representing a decline of 11 percent over three years. More specifically, average unit prices for woven  apparel fell from $3.26 to $2.92 (10% drop in price) and for knit apparel from $1.95 to $1.90 (3% drop in price) over the same period.

Bangladesh’s Local sources are able to meet about 80 percent of the domestic apparel industry’s demand for apparel accessories such as thread, buttons, labels, bags, tapes, shirt board, and cartons. But Bangladesh’s apparel sector relies on imported fabric and yarn inputs because the local textile industry is unable to supply its requirement in terms of quality, quantity, and variety.

Bangladesh’s main competitive advantage is low labor costs, one of the lowest among main apparel exporter countries in the world. Average apparel labor costs per hour in 2008 were $0.22; in comparison, rates in India were more than twice as high and four times higher in China. However, low wages are accompanied by relatively low levels of labor productivity. Average annual value addition per worker in Bangladesh was estimated at $2,500 compared to nearly $7,000 for a group of similar Chinese factories in 2005, according to a World Bank study.

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Reference: Sewing Success? Employment, Wages and Poverty following the End of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (World Bank, 2012). International Trade Statistics (World Trade Organization, 2013).

Review & Comments: “The People’s Republic of Capitalism”

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  • How do you like the documentary “The people’s Republic of Capitalism” we watched last Thursday?
  • What impressed you most? What surprised you most?
  • How do you compare your life with any characters in the documentary? (the Missourian lady, her boss who moved factories to China, the Mexicans who worked on US cotton farms, the Chinese girl working on the production line, the Chinese high school student who comes from a poor rural area and her mother….)
  • What arguments made in the video you do NOT agree?

Please feel free to share your thoughtful comments and I look forward to exciting discussions with you.